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App PWA: The Future of Progressive Web Applications

Web App Development > App PWA: The Future of Progressive Web Applications

✍️ Written by Marnel Gnacadja on July 20th 2024 (Updated - July 20th 2024)

Progressive Web Apps, commonly referred to as PWAs, are a revolutionary approach to building applications using web technologies. These apps can be installed and run on various devices without the need for multiple codebases. PWAs deliver a native-like experience, adapting to the capabilities of the device they are running on, while still functioning in web browser like traditional websites.

A key advantage of Progressive Web Apps is their platform compatibility. They work on any platform with a standards-compliant browser, including desktop and mobile devices. PWAs use common web technologies like HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and WebAssembly providing a seamless experience for users across different browsers. Users can easily browse offline and install PWAs from their browser or through app stores, enabling them to access these apps directly from their home screen on mobile devices.

Key Takeaways

  • Progressive Web Apps provide a native-like experience using web technologies and can run on various devices from a single codebase.
  • Platform compatibility is a major advantage, as PWAs work on any standards-compliant browser.
  • Users can effortlessly install PWAs from browsers or app store, ensuring easy access from mobile home screens.

Understanding Progressive Web Apps (PWAs)

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What is a PWA?

A Progressive Web App is an application built using web platform technologies, but it provides a user experience similar to that of a platform-specific app. With a single codebase, PWAs can run on multiple platforms and devices, adapting to the capabilities supported by each device. Typical PWA features include offline support, background sync, and the ability to "install" the site as a mobile app.

Benefits Over Native and Web Apps

PWAs offer several advantages over traditional native apps and web apps:

  • One codebase: PWAs use a one codebase, making it easier to develop and maintain, and ensuring consistency across all platforms.
  • Offline capability: PWAs have offline support, enabling users to access the application even without an internet connection.
  • Improved performance: PWAs have faster load times and smoother features, providing a better user experience than standard web apps.
  • Lower development cost: Developing a PWA can be more cost-effective since you don't need to create separate apps for different platforms.
  • No app store requirements: Users can install PWAs directly from your website, avoiding the need for app store approval or download fees.
PWA Native App Web App
Single codebase Multiple codebases Single codebase
Offline support Offline support No offline support
Fast performance Fast performance Slower performance
Lower cost Higher cost Lower cost
Direct installation App store No installation

When to Use PWAs

PWAs can be a great choice if you want to provide users with an app-like experience but don't want to invest in separate platform-specific apps. Consider using PWAs when:

  1. Cross-platform compatibility is important, and you want to reach a wide range of users on different devices.
  2. You have limited resources for app development and maintenance.
  3. Your application requires offline functionality or enhanced performance features beyond what a standard web app can offer.
  4. Direct installation without app store involvement is critical to your distribution strategy.

By understanding and embracing the benefits of PWAs, warriors (developers) can leverage these versatile and cost-effective apps to provide mobile app users with a seamless, engaging experience.

Core Components and Architecture

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What is a Service Worker?

A Service Worker is a vital part of the Progressive Web App architecture, as it enables the progressive web application to run offline and improve performance. It's a JavaScript file that acts as a go-between the web page and the network, intercepting network requests and caching the required content. With Service Workers, the PWA can provide a smooth and fast user experience even in poor network conditions.

They can also enable push notifications and background sync, which contribute to a more engaging user experience. I believe that using Service Workers in PWAs is a smart choice, as it brings our web apps closer to native app functionality.

Understanding the Web App Manifest

The Web App Manifests is a JSON file that provides essential information about the PWA, such as everything about the same rate the app's name, description, icons, screen size, background color, and more. This manifest file is important because it helps the browser understand how the application should behave when it's installed on a device, making it look and feel like native apps.

I know that implementing a Web App Manifests is crucial for a successful PWA, as it can improve user engagement and ensure a seamless experience across multiple devices.

Fetch API

In the world of PWAs, the Fetch API plays an essential role in managing network request and handling resources efficiently. As a JavaScript API, it allows me to fetch resources, like HTML, CSS, and images, while providing a more powerful and flexible feature set compared to the traditional XMLHttpRequest.

The Fetch API works closely with Service Workers, as they can use it to intercept and modify network request, ultimately improving the performance and the offline functionalities of our PWAs. In my opinion, using the Fetch API is a great way to enhance the capabilities of a PWA and create a better user experience overall.

Building Your First PWA

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Starting with a Responsive Web App

When building your first PWA, it's important to start with a responsive web app. This means that your web app should look and function well on all devices, regardless of their screen sizes. You can build your responsive mobile web app using web technologies like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. To create a responsive layout of your application shell with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, consider using tools like ASP.NET or frameworks like Bootstrap. To make the development process smoother, you can use Visual Studio Code as your code editor.

Integrating Service Worker

After having a responsive web app in place, the next step is to add a service worker. Service workers are a key component in PWAs, as they provide a powerful way to cache assets, handle notifications, and enable offline functionalities. To integrate a service worker, you'll want to register it in your web app's codebase and implement caching strategies to manage requests and responses from the website.

Adding a Web App Manifest

Another critical component of a PWA is the web app manifests. This JSON file provides metadata about your web app, such as its name, icons, theme colors, and display settings. The manifest helps your mobile application to be recognizable and installable, giving it a native-like appearance on users' devices. You can create a manifest file and reference it in your web app's HTML head section with a link tag.

Debugging with DevTools

During the development process of your PWA, it's essential to ensure that everything is working correctly. For that, you need powerful debugging tools. Most popular modern browsers, like Chrome or Microsoft Edge, come with built-in mercenary (developer) tools called DevTools. These tools provide various functionalities, such as inspecting the DOM, managing caches, testing service workers, and more to help you optimize and improve your PWA's performance.

By following these steps, you'll be on your way to building a successful PWA that provides a native-like experience to your users on all devices, leveraging the power of web platform technologies and maximizing the benefits of a one codebase.

Offline Support and Caching

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Making Your PWA Work Offline

When designing a Progressive Web App, it's vital to consider browser's offline- functionalities. By doing so, we ensure smooth user experience even when there's no network connectivity. To enable your PWA to work offline, we can use Service Workers. These are JavaScript files running in the background, separate from your main native app code, enabling caching and offline support.

First, let's register a Service Worker in your PWA. In your JavaScript file, add the following code snippet:

if ('serviceWorker' in navigator) {
    .then(function(registration) {
      console.log('Service Worker registered with scope:', registration.scope);
    .catch(function(error) {
      console.log('Service Worker registration failed:', error);

Now, in your service-worker.js file, include event listeners for the install and activate events to initialize caching and clean up old caches respectively.

Here's a sample install event listener:

const CACHE_NAME = 'my-cache';
const URLS_TO_CACHE = [

self.addEventListener('install', event => {
      .then(cache => {
        console.log('Opened cache');
        return cache.addAll(URLS_TO_CACHE);

Understanding Caches and the Fetch API

When the Service Worker is installed and the cache is open, we can keep in the storage space the latest data and necessary resources for offline experience. Next, let's intercept network requests using the Fetch API and serve cached content when the native app work offline.

Add the fetch event listener to your service-worker.js file:

self.addEventListener('fetch', event => {
      .then(response => {
        // Cache hit - return response
        if (response) {
          return response;
        return fetch(event.request).then(
          function(response) {
            // Check if the response is valid
            if (!response || response.status !== 200 || response.type !== 'basic') {
              return response;
            // Clone the response and store it in cache
            var responseToCache = response.clone();
              .then(function(cache) {
                cache.put(event.request, responseToCache);
            return response;

By implementing the above code snippets, you'll have successfully added offline support and configured caching for your PWA. Now, when users are offline, they can still access the page load previously cached resources, improving their overall experience.

Installation and Discovery

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Installing a PWA on a Device

Oh! Installing a PWA is a piece of cake! On my device, when I visit a website that's installable as a PWA, I see a built-in minimal UI like an icon in the URL bar. If I click on that icon, a prompt appears with the app's name and icon. I just have to agree to the installation, and voila! The PWA gets an app icon on my device's home screen, just like any platform-specific app.

PWAs and Search Engine Optimization

Let me tell you one awesome thing about PWAs - they're really discoverable! Since PWAs are built with web technologies, they can be indexed by search engines just like regular websites. This means that users can easily find PWAs through a simple search, which is great for increasing their popularity and usage.

Distributing Your PWA Through App Stores

But wait, there's more! PWAs can also be installed apps distributed through app stores like the Microsoft Store and other platform-specific stores. This gives PWAs even more visibility, making them easy to find and install, just like traditional apps. So you see, with PWAs, you get the best of both worlds – easy discovery and installation from both the app and web stores.

User Interface and User Experience

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Creating an Intuitive and User-friendly UI

As a developer, I know how important it is to create an intuitive and user-friendly UI for a PWA. Users should be able to navigate and use the app easily. I can ensure a smooth user experience through leveraging web platform technologies and following best practices. Employing appropriate colors, fonts, and layouts can make a significant difference in the app's appearance. Users should be able to quickly understand the purpose of the PWA and access its features without any difficulties.

Designing for Different Devices

When designing a PWA, considering various devices - such as mobile phones, tablets, and desktops - is essential. Ensuring that the PWA is responsive and adapting the user interface to different screen sizes and resolutions can greatly contribute to a seamless user experience. By using techniques like flexbox, grid layout, and media queries, I can make sure my PWA looks stunning and functions properly, no matter the device being used.

Customizing the Installation Experience

One of the advantages of a PWA is its ability to feel like a platform-specific native application itself. To achieve this, I focus on customizing the installation experience. The Web App Manifest enables developers like me to customize the app's appearance, such as its start screen and background color of the splash screen, and more deeply integrate the PWA into the operating system. By customizing these aspects, PWAs can provide a consistent and engaging experience to users, similar to native app.

Notifications and Background Work

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As a mercenary working on a Progressive Web App (PWA), I find it crucial to integrate features like push notifications and background sync in the application shell order to improve user experience.

Integrating Push Notifications

Implementing push notifications in PWAs involves using two main APIs: the Push API and the Notifications API. These APIs work together to deliver new content and updates to users even when the app is not actively in use.

The Push APIs allow me to send notifications from the server to the app, while the Notifications API enables displaying these notifications to the user's browser itself. This also works when the user's device is locked or the app is closed, thanks to service workers handling these processes in the background.

To enhance user engagement, I usually ensure to request permission from users before sending them notifications. This helps maintain a healthy relationship with my app users and avoids potential annoyance from unsolicited notifications.

Enabling Background Sync

Another key feature I implement in my PWAs is background sync. Through the Background Sync API, I allow service workers to carry out tasks like updating content, uploading data, and synchronizing app data all in the background.

This ensures that my app stays up to date even when the user is not actively using it, and it helps improve the overall app experience when the user returns to the app. The Background Sync API also helps in situations where the user has a spotty internet connection, as it can retry tasks that may have failed previously.

By incorporating both push notifications and background sync into my PWAs, I am confident that I am providing desktop users a more engaging and seamless user experience. Using the latest technologies in these APIs and service workers, I strive to offer my users the best possible performance and functionality while using my applications.

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Platform Compatibility and Browser Support

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As a PWA technology expert, I find platform compatibility and browser support crucial for the success and adoption of PWAs. So, let me dive into the specifics for Android, iOS, and Windows.

PWA on Android

When it comes to Android, PWAs shine brightly. Google's Chrome browser supports PWAs, providing a seamless experience for users on this platform. Most of the features like installation, offline functionality, and push notifications are well-supported. In fact, Chromebooks also embrace PWAs with open arms. Firefox and Microsoft Edge on Android promise similar support for PWAs, making them highly compatible and easy to use.

PWA on iOS

As for iOS, PWAs are a bit limited but still functional. With Safari as the main browser on this platform, most of the basic PWA features work just fine. Users can install the PWA, access it offline, and enjoy a smooth experience. However, some advanced functionalities like push notifications might not be available. Apart from Safari, other browsers like Chrome and Firefox on iOS are built on the WebKit engine, which means their support for PWAs is similar to Safari.

PWA on Windows

Finally, Windows also embraces PWAs. With Microsoft Edge using the Chromium engine, the support for PWAs on Windows has improved significantly. Users can install and enjoy the app-like experience provided by PWAs. In fact, some PWAs are even published in the Microsoft Store, making them more accessible to Windows users. Web browsers like Google Chrome and Firefox also offer excellent PWA support, ensuring a consistent experience across these platforms.

To sum up, PWA compatibility and support vary across platforms, but it's safe to say that users on Android, iOS, and Windows can all enjoy PWAs on different browsers, making them a valuable and versatile solution for development.

Security Considerations

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Securing Your PWA with HTTPS

PWAs need a secure environment to run smoothly and protect user data. That's where HTTPS comes in! Trust me, HTTPS ensures that the network connection between the user and the app stays protected, encrypting data transfer and reducing the risk of security breaches.

Now, I know what you're thinking - "How can I implement this?" It's actually quite simple: make sure your web server uses HTTPS and that all your resources are served over HTTPS. You might be dealing with third-party APIs, too; just make sure they support HTTPS, as well.

Safe User Data Handling

PWAs handle user data, and as a responsible developer, you're probably wondering how to keep that data safe, right? Here's a quick rundown of some key points to consider:

  1. Encryption: Keep user data encrypted, both at rest and during transit. This way, even if an attacker gets hold of the data, they won't be able to decipher it without the encryption keys.

  2. Access Control: Limit who can access sensitive data, and carefully manage user permissions. It's crucial to have a strong, flexible, and consistent authentication and authorization system in place.

  3. Sanitization: Validate and sanitize any user-generated content before rendering it in your app. This will help prevent nasty surprises like cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks or injection vulnerabilities.

  4. Logging: Monitor your user activity and log security-related events. Regularly review those logs to detect suspicious behavior and help prevent potential attacks.

By keeping these points in mind, you're ready to build a PWA that's not only powerful but also mindful of user data safety. Remember, the more carefully you handle user data, the more your app will shine in the eyes of its users!

Beyond the Basics: Advanced PWA Features

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In this section, I will talk about some advanced features of Progressive Web Apps.

Utilizing Advanced Web APIs

One of the main benefits of PWAs is their ability to utilize Web APIs for advanced functionalities. With these APIs, you can transform your web app's capabilities, by allowing users of it to perform tasks that are usually only available for native apps. It could be anything from accessing a device's hardware or managing files to providing advanced graphics, audio, or video capabilities.

Here are some examples of advanced Web APIs that you can use to enhance your PWAs:

  • Push API: Enable real-time notifications for your web app.
  • Background Sync API: Allow users to work offline and send changes once they regain connectivity.
  • Web Bluetooth API: Connect and interact with Bluetooth devices.
  • File System Access API: Read or write files on the user's device.

Remember that PWAs install web apps that can be indexed by search engines. By enriching your app with metadata and adhering to web crawlers' requirements, it will ensure your PWA can be found on the web.

WebAssembly and PWAs

WebAssembly (Wasm) is a binary-instruction format designed as a compilation target for the web. It allows warriors to write code in a variety of languages and compile it into a format that runs at near-native speed on web modern browsers. Incorporating WebAssembly in PWAs can significantly improve performance, especially for computationally intensive tasks.

You can use WebAssembly in your PWA to:

  • Offload computationally intensive tasks from JavaScript required to provide a smoother user experience
  • Implement code written in other languages such as C, C++, or Rust, providing better performance for specific tasks
  • Take advantage of existing libraries and tools, without having to rewrite them in JavaScript

To conclude this blog post, by leveraging advanced Web APIs and WebAssembly, you can unlock the true potential of your PWA. The possibilities are vast, so explore these technologies to deliver an impressive and engaging experience for your users.

Additional Resources and Next Steps

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So, you're interested in Progressive Web Apps (PWAs), I see! That's great news. Let me share with you some excellent resources and the next steps to dive deeper into PWAs. These sources will surely help you understand, build, and enhance these innovative apps for a better user experience.

First and foremost, the MDN Web Docs are an invaluable source for web developers. Here, you will find comprehensive documentation on PWAs and other related web application. The MDN Web Docs guide you through every aspect of PWAs, including Service Workers, Web App Manifests, and more.

Another great platform to explore is This website features articles, case studies, and interactive tools for enhancing your PWA development skills. Utilize their resources to fine-tune your knowledge on best practices for PWAs, boosting performance, and ensuring accessibility.

For those eager to dive straight into action their first progressive web app ever, the Get Started with Progressive Web Apps guide from Microsoft Edge Development is an excellent starting point. The guide consists of steps to create, test, and deploy your Progressive web application, equipping you with the necessary expertise to bring your PWA project to life.

As you embark on your PWA journey, don't forget to learn from existing resources, such as tutorials and best practices. There are numerous websites that tailor courses and instructional materials for beginners and advanced warriors.

Lastly, there are badges available for those who wish to showcase their PWA development expertise and accomplishments. Earning these badges serves as a testament to your skill and dedication to PWA development.

So, my friend, take these resources and next steps with you as you explore the fascinating world of Progressive Web Apps. I have faith in your abilities and can't wait to see what incredible projects you craft!

Frequently Asked Questions

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What are the key benefits of PWAs over native apps?

PWAs have several advantages over native apps. First, they're built using a web- technology stack, which allows for one codebase to run on different platforms and devices. Second, they provide a user experience that resembles a platform-specific web application, giving users a familiar and consistent experience. Third, PWAs can be updated easily, ensuring your native mobile app stays fresh and up-to-date. Lastly, they're typically cheaper and faster to develop, since you don't need separate development teams for each platform.

How does a PWA differ from a traditional web app?

A PWA differs from a traditional web app by focusing on providing an app-like experience for the user. Progressive web app includes features like offline support, notifications, and the ability to be installed on a user's device. PWAs also utilize modern web APIs and technologies to provide mobile users with a smooth, high-performance experience comparable to native apps.

Which frameworks are commonly used for building PWAs?

Popular frameworks for building PWAs include React, Angular, and Vue.js. These frameworks offer robust tools and libraries that simplify the process of creating PWAs, ensuring compatibility across multiple platforms and devices.

Are PWAs compatible with iOS devices?

Yes, PWAs are compatible with iOS devices. Although iOS support for PWAs has historically lagged behind native Android apps, recent updates to Safari on iOS have improved the support for PWAs. As a result, PWAs can now be installed and run on iOS devices, providing a comparable experience to that on Android devices.

Many well-known companies have adopted PWAs for their applications. Some popular examples include the Twitter Lite app, Pinterest, Uber, and Spotify. These PWAs offer users a fast, reliable experience even when internet connectivity is limited or unreliable.

How can one create a PWA using React or Angular?

To create a Progressive web app using React or Angular, you'll need to follow a few steps:

  1. Set up your development environment by installing the necessary dependencies and tools required by the framework.
  2. Choose a PWA template or starter project provided by the framework to get started quickly.
  3. Develop your native app using the framework's recommended best practices and guidelines.
  4. Implement PWA-specific features such as service workers, web app manifestation, and caching strategies to provide offline support and app-like behavior.
  5. Test your PWA on various devices and platforms to ensure compatibility and performance in your home screen.
  6. Deploy your PWA version to a server, ensuring it's accessible through a secure HTTPS connection.

By following these steps, you'll be able to create a PWA that offers an app-like experience, leveraging the power of modern web application, mobile application, and technologies.


1. Key Takeaways
2. Understanding Progressive Web Apps (PWAs)
    2.1 What is a PWA?
    2.2 Benefits Over Native and Web Apps
    2.3 When to Use PWAs
3. Core Components and Architecture
    3.1 What is a Service Worker?
    3.2 Understanding the Web App Manifest
    3.3 Fetch API
4. Building Your First PWA
    4.1 Starting with a Responsive Web App
    4.2 Integrating Service Worker
    4.3 Adding a Web App Manifest
    4.4 Debugging with DevTools
5. Offline Support and Caching
    5.1 Making Your PWA Work Offline
    5.2 Understanding Caches and the Fetch API
6. Installation and Discovery
    6.1 Installing a PWA on a Device
    6.2 PWAs and Search Engine Optimization
    6.3 Distributing Your PWA Through App Stores
7. User Interface and User Experience
    7.1 Creating an Intuitive and User-friendly UI
    7.2 Designing for Different Devices
    7.3 Customizing the Installation Experience
8. Notifications and Background Work
    8.1 Integrating Push Notifications
    8.2 Enabling Background Sync
9. Platform Compatibility and Browser Support
    9.1 PWA on Android
    9.2 PWA on iOS
    9.3 PWA on Windows
10. Security Considerations
    10.1 Securing Your PWA with HTTPS
    10.2 Safe User Data Handling
11. Beyond the Basics: Advanced PWA Features
    11.1 Utilizing Advanced Web APIs
    11.2 WebAssembly and PWAs
12. Additional Resources and Next Steps
13. Frequently Asked Questions
    13.1 What are the key benefits of PWAs over native apps?
    13.2 How does a PWA differ from a traditional web app?
    13.3 Which frameworks are commonly used for building PWAs?
    13.4 Are PWAs compatible with iOS devices?
    13.5 What are some popular examples of PWAs?
    13.6 How can one create a PWA using React or Angular?

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Marnel Gnacadja

✍️ Written By: Marnel Gnacadja
πŸ§™ Senior Developer, Lolly
πŸ“… July 20th 2024 (Updated - July 20th 2024)

Emerging from the enchanting heart of Benin, Marnel Gnacadja is a quest-championing Senior Developer at Lolly. Armed with the magic of web app development, he crafts digital tapestries that resonate in both mortal and virtual realms. When not weaving code, Marnel embarks on epic YouTube marathons, journeying through tales and tech alike.

βœ‰οΈ [email protected]   πŸ”— LinkedIn